Changes between Version 6 and Version 7 of JuergeN/Philosophy


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24.11.2012 15:50:59 (8 years ago)
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JuergeN
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  • JuergeN/Philosophy

    v6 v7  
    77Type–token distinction (source: Wikipedia) 
    88 
    9 In disciplines such as philosophy and knowledge representation, the type–token distinction is a distinction that separates a concept from the objects which are particular instances of the concept. For example, the particular bicycle in your garage is a token of the type of thing known as "The bicycle." Whereas, the bicycle in your garage is in a particular place at a particular time, that is not true of "the bicycle" as used in the sentence: "The bicycle has become more popular recently." In logic, the distinction is used to clarify the meaning of symbols of formal languages. 
     9''"In disciplines such as philosophy and knowledge representation, the type–token distinction is a distinction that separates a concept from the objects which are particular instances of the concept. For example, the particular bicycle in your garage is a token of the type of thing known as "The bicycle." Whereas, the bicycle in your garage is in a particular place at a particular time, that is not true of "the bicycle" as used in the sentence: "The bicycle has become more popular recently." In logic, the distinction is used to clarify the meaning of symbols of formal languages. 
    1010 
    1111Types are often understood ontologically as being concepts. They do not exist anywhere in particular because they are not physical objects. Types may have many tokens. However, types are not directly producible as tokens are. You may, for instance, show someone the bicycle in your garage, but you cannot show someone "The bicycle." Tokens always exist at a particular place and time and may be shown to exist as a concrete physical object. 
    1212 
    13 It can be quite useful to distinguish between an abstract "type" of thing, and the various physical "tokens" or examples of that thing. This type-token distinction is illustrated by way of examples. If we say that two people "have the same car", we may mean that they have the same type of car (e.g. the same brand and model), or the same particular token of the car (e.g. they share a single vehicle). This distinction is useful in other ways, during discussion of language. In the phrase "Grendel is Grendel is Grendel is Grendel", there are only two types of words ("Grendel" and "is") but there are seven tokens (four "Grendel" and three "is" tokens). 
     13It can be quite useful to distinguish between an abstract "type" of thing, and the various physical "tokens" or examples of that thing. This type-token distinction is illustrated by way of examples. If we say that two people "have the same car", we may mean that they have the same type of car (e.g. the same brand and model), or the same particular token of the car (e.g. they share a single vehicle). This distinction is useful in other ways, during discussion of language. In the phrase "Grendel is Grendel is Grendel is Grendel", there are only two types of words ("Grendel" and "is") but there are seven tokens (four "Grendel" and three "is" tokens)."'' 
    1414 
    1515''In DeepaMehta a token is called an ''''instance.'''''' 
     
    1818Entity Instance: A single occurrence of a particular entity type is called entity instance. 
    1919 
    20 == Item - Property == 
     20== Item - Entity - Property == 
    2121 
    22 Everything (every item) can have an endless amount of properties. Every property can be an item in itself. 
     22Everything (every item or entity) can have an endless amount of properties. Every property can be an item in itself. 
    2323 
    2424''In DeepaMehta we call an item or entity a ''''topic''''''.